Vascular diseases of the brain are the second reason of the death and the first cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. In tropical areas stroke has some particular features related to the nature of torrid zones. There are some special causes of the stroke, mainly infectious, although some of them are non-infectious. The most important etiologies are malaria, tuberculosis, cysticercosis, syphilis, and Chagas’ disease. The mean age of the patients with stroke in tropical areas seems to be less than that in developed countries, and the disease is more prevalent in younger adults. Prevention and/or treatment of the classic risk factors as well as factors related to tropical zones are the mainstays of controlling the disease. It has to be mentioned that lack of human as well as financial resources makes it difficult to control and treat the disease properly. Herein, the etiologies and risk factors of the cerebrovascular diseases in tropical regions will be reviewd.