Background: There is yet a dearth of literature on the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia on the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of graded oral doses of methanolic seed extract of Momordica charantia on the histology of prostate gland and seminiferous tubules of rats.
Methods: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 176±7 g were assigned randomly into four main groups A to D of 10 rats per group. Groups A to C received daily oral doses of15, 25 or 50 mg/100 g body weight of the seed extract for 56 days. Group D (control) received physiological saline. In each group, five rats were sacrificed on day 57, the remaining half on day 113 (56 days after withdrawal of the extract). The testes and prostate were processed for histological examination.
Results: There was a dose-related alteration in the cytoarchitecture of seminiferous tubules with marked reduction in spermatogenic series. The prostate gland showed dilatation as well as increased intraluminal secretions with increasing dose. Moreover, there was a significant recovery of prostate tissue as the sections were similar to their control counterpart.
Conclusion: the findings of the present study indicate that methanolic extract of Momordica charantia seeds caused reversible histological alterations in the prostate and testes of Sprague-Dawley rats.