Background: Cytokines, chemokines, and chemokine receptors regulate the proliferation and survival of tumor cells, angiogenesis, and metastasis to other organs. This network of ligands and receptors has been used in molecular targeting of cancer. Methods: We compared the mRNA expression of CXCR3, CXCL-10, CXCR4, CXCL-12, IL-4, and IL-10 in tissues of benign and malignant ovarian tumors by qRT-PCR method and evaluated serum IL-10 and CA-125 content of these patients by ELISA during one year.Results: Our result showed a trend toward a higher expression of CXCR4 in malignant ovarian tissues compared with the benign ovarian cysts (P>0.05). However, SDF-1, IP-10, IL-4, CXCR3, and IL-10 had a lower trend in mRNA expression in malignant ovarian tissues compared to the benign cyst tissues. Except for IL-4 (P=0.01) and SDF-1 (P=0.02), the data for other factors were not statistically significant. A trend toward higher concentration of IL-10 was observed in the serum of ovarian cancer patients compared to those with benign cysts; however, the difference was not significant. CA-125 concentration in the serum of ovarian cancer patients was higher than that of benign cyst patients (P=0.05). Conclusion: According to results obtained, we hypothesize that the lower expression of SDF-1 in malignant tissues may have an important role in ovarian tumor growth. However, this hypothesis requires more investigation. Higher levels of CA125 and IL-10 in the serum of patients might indicate that the combination of these biomarkers could be used for distinguishing patients with ovarian cancer from those with benign cysts.