Sulfur Mustard Exposure and Non-Ischemic Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

Document Type: Case Report(s)

Authors

1 Retina Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Eye Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Medical Toxicology Research Center, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Clinical Toxicology, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Eye Research Center, Department of Retina and Vitreous, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

A 41-year-old man was referred with a complaint of visual loss in his left eye and his best corrected visual acuity was 20/80. Slit lamp examination showed arborizing conjunctival vessels and dry eye. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography revealed a non-ischemic central retinal vein occlusion. Cardiovascular, rheumatologic, and hematologic work up showed no abnormal findings. An ascertained history of exposure to sulfur mustard during the Iran-Iraq war was documented in his medical history. Four sessions of intravitreal bevacizumab injections were done as needed. After two-year follow-up, visual acuity in his left eye improved to 20/25 and macular edema was resolved without any need for further interventions. We conclude that sulfur mustard gas exposure may be considered as a predisposing factor for central retinal vein occlusion, as was found in our patient (an Iranian war veteran) by excluding all yet known etiologies and predisposing factors.