Document Type: Brief Report(s)
Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Karaj, Iran
School of Behavioral Sciences and Mental Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Fars Sciences and Research Branch, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran
Breast Diseases Research Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Cancer is deemed the century’s major health problem, and its increasing growth during the last decades has made experts concerned more than ever. Of all types of cancer, breast cancer is regarded as the second most common disease among women. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of spiritual group therapy on quality of life and spiritual well-being among patients suffering from breast cancer. The present research was carried out between March and June 2011. The sample consisted of 24 participants randomly assigned to 2 groups: an experimental group (n, 12) and a control group (n, 12). All the subjects completed questionnaires on quality of life and spiritual well-being in pretest and posttest. The experimental group received 12 sessions of spiritual group therapy. The results demonstrated improvement in quality of life and spiritual well-being in the experimental group. In conclusion, spiritual group therapy can be used to improve quality of life and spiritual well-being (religious health and existential health) among patients with breast cancer.
- Kamangar F, Dores GM, Anderson WF. Patterns of cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence across five continents: defining priorities to reduce cancer disparities in different geographic regions of the world. JÂ Clin Oncol. 2006;24:2137-50. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2005.05.2308. PubMed PMID: 16682732.
- Kaplan JL, Porter RS. Information on medical care for women. Translated by Zolanvary M. Tehran: Meyar-e-elm; 2006. Persian.
- Spira JL, Reed GM. Group psychotherapy for women with breast cancer: 1stÂ ed. Washington: American Psychological Association; 2003.
- Kayser K, Scott JL. Helping couples cope with womenâs cancers: an evidence-based approach for practitioners. 1stÂ ed. NewÂ York: Springer Science & Business Media; 2008.
- Sadock BJ, Sadock VA. Kaplan and Sadockâs synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry. Translated by Arjmand M. Tehran: Arjmand Press; 2008
- Richards PS, Bergin AE. AÂ spiritual strategy for counseling and psychotherapy. 2ndÂ ed. Washington: American Psychological Association; 2005.
- Meraviglia M. Effects of spirituality in breast cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2006;33:E1-7. doi: 10.1188/06.ONF.E1-E7. PubMed PMID: 16470229.
- Hartz GW. Spirituality and mental health: clinical application. Translated by Kamgar A & Jaafar E. Mashhad: Ravan publication; 2008. Persian.
- Lim JW, Yi J. The effects of religiosity, spirituality, and social support on quality of life: a comparison between Korean American and Korean breast and gynecologic cancer survivors. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2009;36:699Â 708. doi: 10.1188/09.ONF.699-708. PubMed PMID: 19887358.
- Hojjati H, Motlagh M, Nuri F, Sharifnia H, Mohammadnejad E, Heydari B. Relationship between different dimensions of prayer and spiritual health in hemodialysis patients. Iranian Journal of Critical Care Nursing. 2009;2:149-52.
- Snoep L. Religiousness and happiness in three nations: AÂ research note. Journal of Happiness Studies. 2008;9:207-11. doi: 10.1007/s10902-007-9045-6.
- Rahmati M, Falahi Km, Rahgouy M, Rahgozar M. The effect of spiritual-religious group therapy on mental status of schizophrenic inpatients. Nursing Research. 2010;5:13-20. Persian.
- Rocha NSd, Fleck MPdA. Evaluation of quality of life and importance given to spirituality/religiousness/personal beliefs (SRPB) in adults with and without chronic health conditions. Revista de Psiquiatria Clinica. 2011;38:19-23.
- Holt CL, Clark EM, Kreuter MW, Rubio DM. Spiritual health locus of control and breast cancer beliefs among urban African American women. Health Psychology. 2003;22:294-299. doi: 10.1037/0278-618.104.22.1684.
- Askari P, Ruoshani Kh, Mehri AderyaniÂ M. Relationship between religious reliefs and optimism with spiritual health in Ahvaz Islamic Azad university Students. Journal of Yaftehaye nou dar Ravanshenasi. 2010;27Â 40. Persian.
- Barbeito S, Vega P, Ruiz de Azua S, Balanza-Martinez V, Colom F, Lorente E, et al. Integrated treatment of first episode psychosis with online training (e-learning): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials. 2014;15:416. doi: 10.1186/1745-6215-15-416. PubMed PMID: 25348346; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4219047.
- Aukst-Margetic B, Jakovljevic M, Margetic B, Biscan M, Samija M. Religiosity, depression and pain in patients with breast cancer. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2005;27:250-5. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2005.04.004. PubMed PMID: 15993256.
- Simoni JM, Martone MG, Kerwin JF. Spirituality and psychological adaptation among women with HIV/AIDS: implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 2002;49:139-47. doi: 10.1037/0022-022.214.171.124.
- Corey G. Group counseling methods and theories. Translated by Askari F, Khodabakhshi M, Darini M, Askari F. Tehran: Shabnam Danesh; 2008. Persian.
- Miller G. Incorporating Spirituality in Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theory and Technique. 1stÂ ed. New Jersey: Willey & Sons; 2003.
- Essa Zadegan A. The use of metaphors in counseling and psychotherapy. Novel Research and Consulting. 2008;26:105-75. Persian.