Background: The prevention and correction of vitamin D deficiency requires a precise depiction of the current situation and identification of risk factors in each region. The present study attempted to determine these entities using a systematic review and meta-analysis in Iran.Methods: Articles published online in Persian and English between 2000 and November 1, 2016, were reviewed. This was carried out using national databases such as SID, IranMedex, Magiran, and IranDoc and international databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. The heterogeneity index among the studies was determined using the Cochran (Q) and I2 test. Based on the heterogeneity results, the random-effect model was applied to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency. In addition, meta-regression analysis was used to determine heterogeneity-suspected factors, and the Egger test was applied to identify publication bias.Results: The meta-analysis of 48 studies identified 18531 individuals with vitamin D deficiency. According to the random-effect model, the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among male, female, and pregnant women was estimated to be 45.64% (95% CI: 29.63 to 61.65), 61.90% (95% CI: 48.85 to 74.96), and 60.45% (95% CI: 23.73 to 97.16), respectively. The results of the meta-regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly different in various geographical regions (β=4.4; P=0.023).Conclusion: The results obtained showed a significant prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among the Iranian population, a condition to be addressed by appropriate planning.