Prevalence of Hypercholesterolemia, High LDL, and Low HDL in Iran: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Document Type: Review Article

Authors

1 Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran

2 Student Research Committee, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran

3 Proteomics Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran

5 Department of Cardiology, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran

6 Department of Paramedical Sciences, Faculty of Emergency Medicine, Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran

Abstract

Background: Chronic and abnormal increase of different types of dyslipidemia leads to some important diseases, such as constriction and abstraction of vessels in various parts of the body, especially in the heart. High lipid profile, such as increased total cholesterol and LDL as well as decreased HDL are recognized as cardiovascular disease risk factors. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of different types of dyslipidemia in Iran by a meta-analysis method.Methods: A literature search for studies published during 1998-2015 was carried out using both Persian and English databases (SID, Magiran, IranMedex, MedLib, PubMed, and Scopus). Keywords such as lipid, dyslipidemia, CVD, cardiovascular risk factors, hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C, low HDL-C, and prevalence were used in the search. Random-effects model was used for the analysis using STATA (version 11.2).Results: In total, 163 articles were identified of which 49 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The estimated prevalence (95% confidence interval) of eligible articles for high cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl  and  ≥240 mg/dl  was  42%  (95%  CI:  38-45)  and  17% (95% CI: 14-20), respectively. Moreover, the prevalence (95%  confidence  interval)  for  high  LDL-C  ≥130 mg/dl  and  ≥160 mg/dl was 40% (95% CI: 32-48) and 19% (95% CI: 16-23), respectively. The pooled prevalence estimate for low HDL-C (<40 among males, <50 among females) was 43% (95%CI: 33-53) in both sexes of the Iranian people. All types of lipid component abnormalities (hypercholesterolemia, high LDL-C, and low HDL-C) were more prevalent in women. Conclusion: The results indicate that the prevalence of different types of dyslipidemia in Iran is substantial. Given the risk of complications (e.g. cardiovascular disease and control of different types of dyslipidemia) in Iranian people, it is important to reduce the burden of cardiovascular diseases.

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