Background: Success of infection treatment depends on the availability of accurate, reliable, and comprehensive data, information, and knowledge at the point of therapeutic decision-making. The identification of a national minimum data set will support the development and implementation of an effective surveillance system. The goal of this study was to develop a national antimicrobial resistance surveillance minimum data set. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, data were collected from selected pioneering countries and organizations which have national or international antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems. A minimum data set checklist was extracted and validated. The ultimate data elements of the minimum data set were determined by applying the Delphi technique.Results: Through the Delphi technique, we obtained 80 data elements in 8 axes. The resistance data categories comprised basic, clinical, electronic reporting, infection control, microbiology, pharmacy, World Health Organization-derived, and expert-recommended data. Relevance coding was extracted based on the Iranian electronic health record coding system. Conclusion: This study provides a set of data elements and a schematic framework for the implementation of an antimicrobial resistance surveillance system. A uniform minimum data set was created based on key informants’ opinions to cover essential needs in the early implementation of a global antimicrobial resistance surveillance system in Iran.