Background: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) protects other organs from subsequent lethal ischemic injury, but uncertainty remains. We investigated if RIPC could prevent acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery.Methods: This parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was done on adults undergoing elective or urgent on-pump CABG surgery from 2013 to 2017 in Shiraz, Iran. Patients were allocated to RIPC or control groups through permuted blocking. The patients in the RIPC group received three cycles of 5 min ischemia and 5 min reperfusion in the upper arm after induction of anesthesia. We placed an uninflated cuff on the arm for 30 min in the control group. The study primary endpoint was an incidence of AKI. Secondary endpoints included short-term clinical outcomes. We compared categorical and continuous variables using Pearson χ2 and unpaired t tests, respectively. P<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Of the 180 patients randomized to RIPC (n=90) and control (n=90) groups, 87 patients in the RIPC and 90 patients in the control group were included in the analysis. There was no significant difference in the incidence of AKI between the groups (38 patients [43.7%] in the RIPC group and 41 patients [45.6%] in the control group; relative risk, 0.96; 95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 1.33; P=0.80). No significant differences were seen regarding secondary endpoints such as postoperative liver function, atrial fibrillation, and inpatient mortality.Conclusion: RIPC did not reduce the incidence of AKI, neither did it improve short-term clinical outcomes in patients undergoing on-pump CABG surgery.Trial Registration Number: IRCT2017110537254N1.