Background: Makhaarej Al-Horouf, the study of speech sounds by Avicenna is a valuable piece of work in the study of speech sounds, which was written about ten centuries ago. It contains six chapters on sound, anatomy of vocal tract, and phonetics. It is amazing to find that Avicenna’s explanations are congruent with the findings of modern scholarship in relevant topics. The study was intended to compare Avicenna’s explanations on the anatomy of the vocal tract to today’s modern advancements. Results: Avicenna describes three cartilages of the larynx, which are known in our time as thyroid, cricoid, and epiglottis (or maybe arytenoids) as well as many of the muscles of the larynx and the tongue. Conclusion: The findings show that Avicenna’s explanations of the anatomy of vocal tract are comparable to today's knowledge on the subject. They also indicate that the study of Makhaarej Al-Horouf and other ancient works would be beneficial in the investigation of the history and development of science around the world.