Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has been suggested to be linked with autoimmune processes. Laparoscopic ovarian electrocauterization has the potency to stimulate more autoimmune reactions in PCOS patients. In the present study, we considered anti-nuclear antibodies (ANAs) as the hallmark of autoimmune reactions, and investigated the serum level of these antibodies in 35 patients with PCOS (21-38 years old) pre and one-month after electrocauterization, and in 35 fertile healthy women (25-35 years old) as the control group. Serum levels of ANAs, as well as ANA subtyping, were investigated using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). While 3 out of the 35 patients (8.6%) were positive for ANAs before electrocauterization, none of the controls was positive. The number of ANA-positive cases increased following electrocauterization (3 out of 35 [8.6%] before vs. 10 out of 35 [28.6%] after the procedure). The main ANA subtype in the positive samples was SS-A. The higher ANA level among the PCOS patients suggests association of the disease with autoimmune reactions. Laparoscopic ovarian electrocauterization seems to increase the number of positive-ANA patients.