Effects of the Hydroalcoholic Extract of the Psidium guajava Fruit on Osteoporosis Prevention in Ovariectomized Rats
Background: Several plants have been shown to possess antioxidant and estrogenic properties that can be useful in postmenopausal bone-loss prevention. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-osteoporotic effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of the Psidium guajava (PG) fruit in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
Methods: Sixty female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: a control positive group, a sham-operated group, an OVX group given normal saline (OVX-only group), and 3 treatment groups comprising 2 OVX groups treated orally with 500 and 1000 mg/kg/d of the hydroalcoholic extract of the PG fruit respectively and an OVX group treated with an injection of 0.15 mg/kg of estradiol. The study was conducted over a 12-week period. Samples from the animals’ blood, femoral bones, and uteri were collected for stereological and biochemical analyses. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 19. A P value equal to or less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: The results revealed a significant decrease in the levels of calcium, total antioxidant capacity, and phosphorus as well as uterus weight, femoral ash density, femoral volume and weight, and numbers of osteocytes and osteoblasts. Moreover, there was an increase in the levels of alkaline phosphatase and urine deoxypyridinoline together with a rise in the number of osteoclasts in the OVX-only group compared to the control and treatment groups (P≤0.05). The hydroalcoholic extract of the PG fruit increased femoral weight and volume, femoral ash density, numbers of osteocytes and osteoblasts, and trabecular volume of the bones in comparison with the OVX-only group in a dose-dependent manner. No significant difference was observed between the groups in the levels of malondialdehyde and interleukin-6.
Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract of the PG fruit prevented OVX-induced bone loss in the rats, with no proliferative effect on atrophic uteri; it should, therefore, be considered for treatment purposes.
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pISSN: 0253-0716 eISSN: 1735-3688