Delayed Complications and Long-Term Management of Sulfur Mustard Poisoning: A Narrative Review of Recent Advances by Iranian Researchers Part ІІ: Clinical Management and Therapy

Leila Etemad, Mohammad Moshiri, Mahdi Balali-Mood

Abstract


The present study aimed to review and discuss the recommended and recently suggested protocols by Iranian researchers for a long-term treatment of delayed complications of sulfur mustard (DCSM) in veterans. As indicated clinically, patients who suffer from delayed ocular complications of sulfur mustard (DOCS) benefit from treatments for dry eyes, therapeutic contact lenses, amniotic membrane transplantation; blepharorrhaphy, tarsorrhaphy, limbal stem cell transplantation; corneal transplantation, topical steroids, and immunosuppressive. In spite of penetrating keratoplasty, lamellar keratoplasty and keratolimbal allograft had a good long-term survival.
Delayed respiratory complications (DRCS) are the most common effects and life-threatening in Iranian veterans. The recommended treatment protocols include regular clinical evaluations, respiratory physiotherapy and rehabilitation, N-acetyl cysteine; warm humidified air, long-acting β2-agonists, and inhaled corticosteroids. Azithromycin has also been effective in improving clinical conditions, pulmonary function tests, inflammatory indexes, and life quality of the veterans. Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and helium: oxygen combination were also used in severe DRCS with good results. Some of the delayed cutaneous complications (DCCS) such as itching affects the quality of life of victims. Regular but not frequent showering and bathing, applying sunscreen compounds, topical corticosteroids, and systemic antihistamines reduce the problems of DCCS patients. Several compounds such as capsaicin cream, pimecrolimus, IFN-γ, phenol-menthol; Aloe vera/olive oil cream, cetirizine, doxepine, and hydroxyzine were evaluated in DCCS patients with some benefits. The physicians in charge of veterans emphasize the importance of a healthy lifestyle, appropriate financial/social/cultural supports, and a degree of reassurance and supportive care on the clinical improvement of patients.


Keywords


Chemical  warfare  agents; Sulfur  mustard; Vision, ocular; Respiratory system

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pISSN: 0253-0716         eISSN: 1735-3688