Usage Pattern and Serum Level Measurement of Amikacin in the Internal Medicine Ward of the Largest Referral Hospital in the South of Iran: A Pharmacoepidemiological Study

Soha Namazi, Mohammad Mahdi Sagheb, Mohammad Mahdi Hashempour, Arman Sadatsharifi

Abstract


Background: The inappropriate use of aminoglycosides has harmful effects such as the development of resistant pathogens and the incidence of nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Therefore, drug utilization evaluation of these drugs may improve their usage remarkably. The aim of this study was to assess the usage pattern of amikacin in an internal medicine ward.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Internal Medicine Ward of Nemazee Teaching Hospital, Shiraz, Iran, in 2011. The guideline for amikacin use was approved by the institutional Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee, and the study criteria were developed to assess several parameters involved in amikacin therapy such as appropriateness of drug use, dosage, duration of therapy, toxicity monitoring, and serum concentration assay. Serum concentration was assayed using a Cobas Mira AutoAnalyzer. Clinical and paraclinical parameters such as glomerular filtration rate, culture, microbial sensitivity, white blood cell count, and fever were collected.

Results: Sixty-three patients were evaluated. Fifty-seven percent of the patients needed dose readjustment; however, it was not performed for 89% of them. Culture between48 and 72 hours after amikacin administration was not controlled for 79% of the patients. In 19% of the patients, optimum therapeutic effect was not achieved. The mean±SD of the trough and peak concentrations was 7.63±5.4 μg/mL and 15.67±7.79 μg/mL, respectively. Forty-five percent of the trough and 38% of the peak levels were within the therapeutic range. The overall adherence of amikacin usage to the guideline was only 48%.

Conclusion: To achieve appropriate treatment and prevent toxic effects, we recommend that pharmacokinetic dosing methods, amikacin guideline, and serum monitoring be considered.


Keywords


Guideline; Amikacin; Drug utilization review

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References


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