The association between indoor smoke exposure due to traditional baking (baking homemade bread) and anthracosis has rarely been investigated. The aim of the present study is to quantify such association among the Iranian population. A hospital based case-control study was carried out on 83 anthracotic cases and 155 controls (83 individuals with non-anthracotic pulmonary disorders from the pulmonary ward and 72 persons from the surgical ward without any known pulmonary disorders). The interview was performed using the “American Thoracic Society” questionnaire, comprising demographic information, occupational history, cigarette smoking, and indoor smoke exposure due to traditional baking. Multivariate analysis was performed by logistic regression. Comparison between cases and pulmonary ward controls showed that only the association between indoor smoke exposure due to traditional baking and anthracosis in women was statistically significant (OR: 4.30, 95% CI: 1.31 to 14.10). This was concluded after adjusting for other risk factors such as occupational exposure to dust, age, and education. When surgical ward controls were considered as control, after controlling for the significant risk factors, we found a significant relationship between indoor smoke exposure due to traditional baking and anthracosis (OR: 3.35, 95% CI: 1.49 to 7.55). Based on the findings from this study, it is concluded that there is an association between indoor smoke exposure and anthracosis. Women are significantly more susceptible to anthracosis than men are when exposed to smoke exposure.