Background: The search for potent radioprotective agents for the amelioration of radiation side effect is an important aim in radiobiology. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin and seleno-L-methionine against radiation-induced micronucleus formation in rat bone marrow.Methods: In total, 40 male rats were divided into 8 groups (n=5 each), including control, curcumin or seleno-L-methionine treated alone or in combination, 2 Gy irradiation, irradiation of treated groups with curcumin or seleno-L-methionine or their combination. Curcumin was administrated orally and seleno-L-methionine was injected intraperitoneally 24 hours before irradiation. The frequency of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes (MnNCEs) and micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) was scored in 5,000 polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and the cell proliferation ratio [(PCE/(PCE+NCE); NCE=normochromatic erythrocytes] was calculated for each treatment group. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 16.0 and P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant differences.Results: Pretreatment with curcumin and seleno-L-methionine before irradiation reduced the frequency of MnPCEs and MnNCEs (P=0.01) and increased the cell proliferation ratio. Moreover, the results showed that this pretreatment reduced the frequency of MnPCEs with a protection factor (PF) of 1.2 and 1.6, respectively. The combination of curcumin and seleno-L-methionine in reducing MnPCEs and MnNCEs was not more effective than each agent alone, while improved cell proliferation ratio.Conclusion: Both curcumin and seleno-L-methionine showed potent protection against radiation induced MN in bone marrow cells. The combination of the two agents further ameliorates this activity, thus leading to improve bone marrow protection.