Background: The use of antibiotics is common, but its excessive or improper use leads to antibiotic resistance. Consequently, scientists have been interested in exploring traditional medicine to identify a new source of anti-bacterial agents. The present study aimed to conduct a systematic review to determine the anti-bacterial activity of Satureja khuzestanica Jamzad (SKJ) and Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM) essential oils against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.
Methods: A comprehensive literature search for studies published on SKJ and ZM was carried out. Various keywords (S. Khuzestanica, Marzeh-e-Khuzestani, Z. Multiflora, Z. Multiflora Boiss; Avishan-e-Shirazi, Shirazi thyme, Thymol, Carvacrol; P. aeruginosa, Iran, Antibacterial effect; Traditional medicine, Phytomedicine, Herbal medicine) were used to search both international and Iranian databases (Google Scholar, Science Direct, Web of Science, MEDLINE; PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Academic Search; Journal Storage, Magiran, Irandoc, Scientific Information Database (SID), and IranMedex). The selected articles were published during 2000-2017 and were written in English or Persian.
Results: Seventeen articles were included in the review. The main ingredients of SKJ and ZM plants were carvacrol and thymol. The potential anti-bacterial activity of essential oils from these plants was confirmed. The carvacrol content, as the major active ingredient of SKJ was between 38.33-97.89%. The major ingredients of ZM were carvacrol (16.8-82.7%) followed by thymol (25.70-64.87%). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of SKJ and ZM essential oils against bacterial strains was in the range of 0.31-450 and 2-8,000 μg/mL, respectively.
Conclusion: The present review study confirmed the anti-bacterial activity of SKJ and ZM, particularly against Pseudomonas in-vitro.