Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences

Document Type: Original Article(s)


Isfahan Kidney Transplantation Research Center, Department of Urology, Alzahra Research Centers, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: The incidence of renal hemorrhage during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is high. We sought to evaluate the effects of tranexamic acid (TXA) on bleeding and hemoglobin levels of patients with staghorn calculi treated with PCNL.
Methods: In a double-blind clinical trial, 120 patients with staghorn calculi candidated for PCNL in Alzahra Hospital between January 2014 and November 2017, Isfahan, Iran, were classified into two groups in terms of the stone size (>4 cm and Results: The mean volume of blood loss was significantly higher in the control group patients than in those receiving TXA, in both stone-size categories (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in the postoperative hemoglobin level between the intervention and control groups, in both stone-size categories (P=0.26 and P=0.10, respectively). In addition, the mean volume of blood loss increased significantly with an increase in the operative duration (P<0.001).
Conclusion: TXA reduced the risk of bleeding during and after PCNL and attenuated the drop in the hemoglobin level in the postoperative period. Longer operative procedures were associated with an increase in the bleeding volume.
Trial Registration Number: IRCT20180209038673N1