Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences

Document Type : Original Article(s)


Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Background: The Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus (PVN) coordinates autonomic and neuroendocrine systems to maintain homeostasis. Microinjection of angiotensin II (AngII) into the PVN has been previously shown to produce pressor and bradycardia responses. Anatomical evidence has indicated that a substantial proportion of PVN neurons is connected with the neurons in the central amygdala (CeA). The present study aimed to examine the possible contribution of the CeA in cardiovascular responses evoked by microinjection of AngII into the parvocellular portion of PVN (PVNp) before and after microinjection of cobalt chloride (CoCl2) into the CeA.
Methods: The experiments were conducted at the Department of Physiology of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, from April 2019 to November 2019. There were two groups of 21 eight-week-old urethane anesthetized male rats, namely saline (n=9 rats) and AngII (n=12 rats) groups. Drugs (100 nL) were microinjected via a single-glass micropipette into the PVNp and CeA. Their blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded throughout the experiments. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were compared to the pre-injection values using paired t test, and to those of the saline group using independent t test.
Results: Microinjection of AngII into the PVNp produced pressor response (P<0.0001) with no significant changes in HR (P=0.70). Blockade of CeA with CoCl2 attenuated the pressor response to microinjection of AngII into the PVNp (P<0.001).
Conclusion: In the PVNp, Ang II increased the rats’ blood pressure. This response was in part mediated by the CeA. Our study suggested that these two nuclei cooperate to perform their cardiovascular functions.


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