Background: Postoperative peritoneal adhesion bands are one of the most common complications caused by foreign material. Objective: To investigate the effect of colchicine on talc-induced peritoneal adhesion bands. Method: Adhesion bands were induced in 30 short hair England Guinea pigs by introduction of talc-saline solution (10 mL, 10%) into the peritoneal cavity. Afterwards, the pigs were randomly divided into two equal groups and colchicine was orally given to the experimental group. Finally, laparotomy was performed and the adhesion bands in both groups were classified using the Nair classification and compared with each other. Results: Only four (23%) out of 15 Guinea pigs of the target group developed substantial adhesions, while the other 11 (75%) pigs developed only insubstantial adhesions (grade 0-1). On the other hand, the entire control group developed substantial adhesions. Conclusion: Colchicine, at a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg, prevented and reduced formation and severity of adhesion bands (p<0.05). Therefore, given the safety, low cost and acceptable side effects, colchicine may be a useful agent for prevention or reduction of adhesion band formation. Human studies on this subject are warranted.