Background: There is inconsistent information about the role of psychological factors in the incidence of reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) in patients with distal radius fractures. The present study was thus undertaken to evaluate the relationship between some of these factors and the occurrence of reflex sympathetic dystrophy in patients with distal radius fracture. Methods: One hundred and twenty patients with distal radius fracture who met the criteria to enter the study and admitted to the orthopedic department of Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad were evaluated. Spielberger anxiety questionnaire, Beck depression questionnaire, and personality type questionnaires as well as the information about the patients' demography were recorded after the treatment. The patients were followed for two months based on clinical evidence of RSD and the results of specific examinations. In our study, Veldman's criteria were used to set the diagnosis of RSD. Finally, the psychological status of the patients with or without RSD was evaluated using Chi square and t tests. Results: Of the 88 patients completed the study, 13 were affected by RSD. There was no significant relationship between depression and anxiety of the patients with occurrence of RSD (P>0.05). The presence of type A personality characters had a significant positive relationship (P=0.000) and the presence of type B personality had a significant negative relationship (P=0.004) with the incidence of RSD after 2 months. Conclusion: Personal characteristics of patients with distal radius fracture play a role in the incidence of RSD.