Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences

Document Type : Review Article


Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Emerging pathogens in the meantime of paucity of new antibiotics discovery, put antimicrobial stewardship in the center of attention, to preserve the existing antimicrobial effect. Implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programs, however, needs approval from healthcare system managers. The approval process can be enhanced, when the beneficial effects of stewardship programs are supported by both clinical and financial evidence. Focusing on the financial outcome evaluation, the practitioners, who run the stewardship programs may choose certain methods and metrics, depending on the clinical setting scale and type, available human resources, and budget. The wise selection of the methods and metrics warrants a comprehensive insight of the existing methods and metrics, deployed by typically published works that set good examples to follow. This review is an attempt to provide such an insight along with typical relevant examples for each metric and method.