Background: Dermatoglyphics are the dermal ridge configurations on the digits, palms and soles. Dermatoglyphic polymorphism results from the co-operation of genetic and environmental factors. The Dermatoglyphic analysis is a valuable completion of initial diagnosis of some syndromes genetically determined. Our objective was to assess dermatoglyphics study results against standard chromosomal analysis in Down and Klinefelter syndromes. Methods: In this study we applied clear plastic tape and graphite powder for finger and palm prints of 90 persons. Cytogenetic study was also performed for patients with Down (n=29) and Klinefelter (n=22) syndromes and 39 normal individuals who served as the control group. Results: Dermatoglyphic investigations indicated that in Down syndrome, simian line, ulnar loops, whorl, t'', t''' and t' were significant, whereas arch and interdigital III pattern were more indicative for Klinefelter syndrome. Conclusion: Dermatoplyphic can be used both as an initial diagnostic step and for screening purposes.