Background: Stimulation of collateral artery growth (arteriogenesis) and/or capillary network growth (angiogenesis) would be beneficial to the patients with myocardial infarction. To understand the central role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in biological angiogenesis, we performed molecular analysis of the VEGF gene in patients afflicted with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Method: Forty patients with AMI were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of created collateral blood vessels in ischemic myocardial region. In these patients we also evaluated the possible relationship of plasma levels of VEGF and its growing ability of new blood vessels. The molecular characterisation of VEGF gene may highlight the presence of natural genomic variants which could facilitate the formation of new vessels in the ischemic area. Results: The genomic analysis of VEGF gene did not reveal any mutations in the coding region, but showed the presence of four and one single nucleotide substitutions in the intronic region and 5'UTR respectively. The C to T nucleotide transition at position –7 of 5’UTR is located in a potential binding site for Sp-1 transcription factor, which could probably affect the VEGF gene transcription. Conclusion: The molecular study of VEGF gene showed that its coding region is highly conserved. Therefore, variations of angiogenesis could be due to the regulatory elements participating in this mechanism.