Background: Leishmaniosis is a prevalent tropical parasitic disease, which is caused by Leishmania protozoa. The infection can be limited in immune-competent individuals; however, in immune-compromised individuals it could proceed to chronic and ulcerative disease. The reservoirs are carnivores, and rodents and its vectors are Phlebotomus and Lutzumia. Methods: The prevalence of different spices of Phlebotomus populations and the effects of insecticides on them are investigated in Abardejhe district located in southeast of Tehran, Iran. Tablets of aluminum phosphide (3 g) and residual formulation of methyl carbamate at concentrations of 1 and 2 g/m² were used in rodents' burrows. Results: Phlebotomus population was highly sensitive to both insecticides used here, and their population significantly decreased by 80% within two months after application of insecticides. The effects of methyl carbamate at concentrations used lasted two months longer than that of aluminum phosphide. Conclusion: Control and prevention of Leishmania infection depends on the habitat and behavior of vectors and reservoirs. Periodic insecticide spraying, using residual compound inside and outside residential areas, as well as breading places of sandflies, specially rodent’s burrows, are shown to be very effective.