Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) was the first human retrovirus associated with malignancy. The prevalence of HTLV-I infection varies significantly in different regions of the world. In this study, the prevalence of HTLV-I infection among ethnic Jews living in Shiraz, South of Iran, was investigated. 286 blood samples were obtained. HTLV-1 antibody assay on serum samples was done by standard ELISA method. Western blot method was applied for confirmation of borderline results.None of the subjects was found HTLV-I seropositive using both ELISA and western blotting methods. Our preliminary results indicate that HTLV-I is not endemic in Jewish people living in Shiraz, the southwest of Iran.