Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences

Document Type: Case Report(s)


1 Department of Pediatrics, Dr. Sheikh Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Department of Pediatrics & Infection Control and Hand Hygiene Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran


Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is a rare demyelinating disease characterized by an acute rapidly progressive fulminant inflammation of the white matter. In this case report, we introduce a case of AHLE in children with an interesting and lengthy process and successful treatment.A previously healthy 13-year-old girl was admitted to the hospital because of fever and loss of consciousness. After 4 days, she was referred to our pediatric intensive care unit in Mashhad, Iran. On admission, she had right-sided parotiditis. With a diagnosis of AHLE, our patient was treated with methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, acyclovir, and plasmapheresis.AHLE is a rare and severe demyelinating disease, the mortality and morbidity of which can be decreased by early detection and treatment with steroid therapy, intravenous immunoglobulin, acyclovir, and plasmapheresis.


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