Background: Low serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) has been shown to correlate with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective of this study was to investigate the association between serum 25(OH)D and glycemic and inflammatory markers in non-obese patients with T2DM. Methods: Eighty-four non-obese patients with T2DM were recruited in this cross-sectional study. Demographic, anthropometric, and dietary information was obtained from all the participants. The serum concentrations of glucose, HbA1C, insulin, 25(OH)D, and inflammatory markers including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured. A homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was also evaluated.Results: The mean serum concentration of 25(OH)D was 11.01±5.55 ng/mL. Severe deficiency, deficiency, and insufficiency of vitamin D were detected in 60.71%, 35.72%, and 3.57% of the participants, respectively. The results showed that those in the lowest group of serum 25(OH)D had significantly higher TNF-α than did those in the highest group (P=0.026). Although the association between serum 25(OH)D and fasting blood sugar and TNF-α was statistically significant (P=0.049 and P=0.044, respectively), the other glycemic markers and hs-CRP did not have any significant relationships with 25(OH)D. Conclusion: According to the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the diabetic patients and the inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D and fasting blood sugar and TNF-α in this study, vitamin D status may be a determining factor of systemic inflammation in patients with T2DM. Further studies with larger sample sizes are suggested in this regard.