Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences

Document Type: Original Article(s)


Department of Neonatology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran


Background: In recent years, various noninvasive respiratory support (NRS) of ventilation has been provided more in neonates. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of HFNC with NCPAP in post-extubation of preterm infants with RDS after INSURE method (intubation, surfactant, extubation).Methods: A total of 54 preterm infants with RDS (respiratory distress syndrome) were enrolled in this study. Using a randomized sequence, they were assigned into two groups after INSURE method. The first group received HFNC while the second group received NCPAP for respiratory support after extubation. A comparison was made between these two groups by the rate of reintubation, air leak syndrome, duration of oxygen therapy, hospitalization, the rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and mortality. Data were analyzed by using the SPSS version 18 software. The statistical analyses included Student’s t-test for continuous data and compared proportions using Chi-squared test and Fisher‘s exact test for categorical data.Result: The rate of reintubation was higher in the HFNC compared with the NCPAP group. The rate of either IVH or ROP had no significant differences between the two groups. In addition, duration of oxygen requirement and hospitalization were not statistically different. There was no case of BPD or mortality among these patients.Conclusion: This study showed that preterm infants with RDS could manage post-extubation after INSURE method with either NCPAP or HFNC. However, in this single-center study, the rate of reintubation was higher in the HFNC group while further multicenter study might be assigned.Trial Registration Number: IRCT201201228800N1