Background: Acute blood purification (ABP) therapy is used regularly in the clinical setting and reportedly alleviates organ failure associated with severe systemic inflammatory responses, leading to reduced mortality. The present study aimed to determine whether there is a difference in efficacy between polysulfone (PS) membranes, which are currently used regularly in the clinical setting, and vitamin E-coated polysulfone (VEPS) membranes, which are anticipated to exhibit the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of vitamin E.Methods: Male Wistar rats (n=15/group) were intravenously administered 10 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to establish a systemic inflammatory response model. Six hours after LPS administration, hemodiafiltration (HDF) was performed for 30 minutes using a PS or VEPS membrane under general anesthesia. Blood was collected at various time points, lung tissue was evaluated histologically, and 24-hour survival was assessed.Results: The rats in the VEPS group tended to have a higher survival rate than those in the PS group when undergoing HDF, although the difference was not significant. With respect to lung tissue, the inflammatory response was suppressed to a greater extent in the VEPS group than the PS group. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 levels were reduced at an early stage, plasma antioxidant activity was increased, and oxidative stress was reduced in the VEPS group compared to the PS group.Conclusion: Relative to PS membrane-based HDF, the survival rate tended to improve and inflammation was subdued earlier due to the antioxidant activity and early attenuation of inflammation associated with VEPS membrane-based HDF.