Background: Ischemic stroke recovery is poor in diabetic mellitus (DM). Vanadium compounds (vanadium) relieve DM signs, but their influences on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/RI) are inconclusive. Herein, the intensity of I/RI was inspected in vanadium-treated DM rats.Methods: Rats made diabetic with a single intravenous dose of streptozocin (39 mg/kg). Normal and DM rats used water or vanadyl solution for 45 days. Under isoflurane anesthesia, right middle cerebral artery occlusion was performed for 60 minutes and 12 hours reperfusion. Ischemic rats were divided into untreated-control normal (ICN) and diabetic (ICD), vanadium-treated normal (IVTN) and diabetic (IVTD) groups (n=14 each). After neurological deficit score (NDS) test, the rats were sacrificed and their brain removed and stained with triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) to measure cerebral infarct volume (CIV, mm3) or Evans blue extravasation (EBE, μg/g wet-tissue). Data analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (SPSS software, version 21.0) and P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant.Results: Blood glucose (BG, mg/dL) was similar in ICN and IVTN, elevated in IVTD and ICD (245±6 vs. 344±2, P<0.001). The increased CIV in ICN and IVTN was similar (48±2 and 34±5), very high in ICD but lower in IVTD (249±37 vs. 110±16, P<0.001). EBE was absent in non-lesioned hemispheres, similarly increased in lesioned hemispheres of ICN and IVTN (14±1 and 13±1). EBE in IVTD was significantly lower than ICD (21±2 vs. 33±5, P=0.01).Conclusion: I/RI was moderate in normoglycemia and did not change with vanadium. Hyperglycemia robustly intensified I/RI. Vanadium ameliorated hyperglycemia and reduced I/RI. Nonetheless, more investigations are required to link the mechanisms of vanadium on DM and stroke injuries.