Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences

Document Type: Original Article(s)


1 Department of Clinical Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

2 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran

4 Department of Biostatistics and Public Health, Faculty of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran


Background: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk of impairment in multiple domains. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of mindful parenting training in reducing clinical symptoms in children with ADHD and parenting stress of their parents.Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 2 groups (experimental and control) in 3 phases (pretest, posttest, and 8 weeks’ follow-up). Sixty children with ADHD, who had been referred by the child psychiatrist in the Iranian city of Kashan in the second half of the year 2016, were selected along with their mothers. The mothers were assigned to one of the 2 groups via permuted blocked randomization. The mothers completed the parenting stress index–short form (PSI–SF 36) and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham Parent and Teacher rating scale (SNAP-IV). All the children in both groups received pharmacotherapy with either risperidone or Ritalin. The intervention group received 8 sessions (1 session each week, each session lasting 90 minutes) of mindful parenting training based on the Kabat-Zinn protocol. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, via the t test, χ2 test, repeated measures analysis of variance, and nonparametric Friedman test. Results: This study showed a reduction in parenting stress, negative parent-child interactions, and children’s problematic characteristics in the mindful parenting training group compared with the control group in the posttest and follow-up. Our results also demonstrated a significant improvement in ADHD symptoms in the experimental group by comparison with the control group in the posttest and follow-up.Conclusion: Mindful parenting training was effective in reducing parenting stress and ADHD symptoms in our intervention group. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2016021026505N1