Background: In recent years, before radical hysterectomy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has been administered to patients with locally advanced cervical cancer to shrink large tumors. It has been reported that this treatment significantly reduces the need for radiotherapy after surgery. The current study aimed to assess the outcome (survival, recurrence, and the need for adjuvant radiotherapy) of locally advanced cervical cancer in patients treated with NACT followed by radical hysterectomy and primary surgery.
Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, the records of 258 patients with cervical cancer (stage IB2, IIA, or IIB), who referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from 2007 to 2017 were evaluated. The patients were assigned into two groups; group A (n=58) included patients, who underwent radical hysterectomy and group B (n=44) included those, who underwent a radical hysterectomy after NACT. The outcome measures were the recurrence rate, 5-year survival rate, and the need for adjuvant radiotherapy.
Results: The median for overall survival time in group A and B was 113.65 and 112.88 months, respectively (P=0.970). There was no recurrence among patients with stage IB2 cervical cancer in group B, while the recurrence rate in group A was 19.5% with a median recurrence time of 59.13 months. Lymph node involvement was the only factor, that affected patients’ survival. The need for postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy in group B was lower than in group A (P=0.002).
Conclusion: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy before the hysterectomy was found to reduce the need for postoperative radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer according to disease stages. As a direct result, adverse side effects and the recurrence rate were reduced, and the overall survival rate of patients with stage IIB cervical cancer was increased.