Background: Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is known to have antifibrotic and hypoglycemic effects and may play a role in preventing diabetes-induced pulmonary fibrosis. This study aimed to determine the effect and optimum dose of CGA on diabetes-induced pulmonary fibrosis.
Methods: Thirty Wistar rats (two-month-old, 150-200 grams) were randomly divided into six groups, namely control, six weeks diabetes mellitus (DM1), eight weeks DM (DM2), and three DM2 groups (CGA1, CGA2, and CGA3) who received CGA doses of 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/Kg BW, respectively. After six weeks, CGA was administered intraperitoneally for 14 consecutive days. Lung tissues were taken for TGF-β1, CTGF, SMAD7, Collagen-1, and α-SMA mRNA expression analysis and paraffin embedding. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Kruskal-Wallis test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: TGF-β1 expression in the CGA1 group (1.01±0.10) was lower than the DM1 (1.33±0.25, P=0.05) and DM2 (1.33±0.20, P=0.021) groups. α-SMA expression in the CGA1 group (median 0.60, IQR: 0.34-0.64) was lower than the DM1 (median 0.44, IQR: 0.42-0.80) and DM2 (median 0.76, IQR: 0.66-1.10) groups. Collagen-1 expression in the CGA1 group (0.75±0.13) was lower than the DM1 (P=0.24) and DM2 (P=0.26) groups, but not statistically significant. CTGF expression in CGA groups was lower than the DM groups (P=0.088), but not statistically significant. There was an increase in SMAD7 expression in CGA groups (P=0.286). Histological analysis showed fibrosis improvement in the CGA1 group compared to the DM groups.
Conclusion: CGA (12.5 mg/Kg BW) inhibited the expression of profibrotic factors and increased antifibrotic factors in DM-induced rats.