Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences

Document Type : Original Article(s)


1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

3 Department of Neurosurgery, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

4 Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Imam Hossein Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

5 Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease Research Center, Imam Hossein Medical Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

6 Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

7 Department of Pharmaceutical Care Unit, Imam Hossein Medical and Educational Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran



Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common neurological disorders worldwide. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of high-dose vitamin D3 on inflammatory biomarkers in patients with moderate to severe TBI. 
Methods: Thirty-five moderate to severe TBI patients were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Patients in the intervention group received a single intramuscular (IM) dose of 300,000 IU vitamin D. The primary endpoints were interleukin levels (IL-1β and IL-6), and the secondary endpoints were changes in neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), Glasgow Coma scale (GCS), and Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) scores compared between intervention and control arms of the study. The linear Generalized Estimating Equations were used for trend analysis and evaluating the association of independent factors to each outcome.
Results: The results revealed a significant decrease in IL-1β levels (-2.71±3.02, in the intervention group: P=0.001 vs. -0.14±3.70, in the control group: P=0.876) and IL-6 (-88.05±148.45, in the intervention group: P=0.0001 vs. -35.54±175.79, in the control group: P=0.325) 3 days after the intervention. The improvement in the GCS score (P=0.001), reduction in NLR (P=0.001) and PLR (P=0.002), and improvement in the GOS-E score (P=0.039) was found to be greater in the vitamin D3 arm of the study than the control group.
Conclusion: Administration of high-dose vitamin D3 in the acute phase of TBI could be effective in lowering the inflammatory markers and improving the level of consciousness and long-term performance outcomes.
Trial registration number: IRCT20180522039777N2.


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